This article analyses the Tangale presupposition relating to the concept of brotherhood. It argues that the concept underscores the significance of the virtue of solidarity and togetherness within the Tangale traditional kinship setting. The Tangale background develops a new appreciation for the interaction between brotherhood and kinship and opens up a new perspective of exegesis of Genesis 19:1- 11—using irony as the hermeneutical lens. This assessment of biblical passage, hospitality as the interpretive context of the passage, provides a theological and ethical understanding of the concept of brotherhood that transcends ethnic boundaries. Such understanding, it is argued, has significant implications on the theological-ethical reflections that might help the Tangale and Kaltungo/Shongom ethnic nationalities to have a rethink and resist the negative persuasions that had resulted in the ongoing inter-tribal armed rivalry.
Aasgaard, Reidar. “Brother, Brotherhood,” Pages 505-507 in vol. 1 of The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. Edited by Katharine Doob Sakenfeld et al. 5 vols. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2006.
Arnold, Bill T. Genesis: The New Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Bendor, Shunya. The Social Structure of Ancient Israel: The Institution of the Family (beit'ab) from the Settlement to the End of the Monarchy, vol. 7. Edited by Emunah Katzenstein. Jerusalem: Simor, 1996.
Bolin, Thomas M. “The Role of Exchange in Ancient Mediterranean Religion and its Implications for Reading Genesis 18-19.” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 29(1). Pages 37-56. https://www.academia.edu/235452/TheRole ofExchangeinAncientMediterraneanReligionandItsImplicationsforReadingGenesis_18-19. 2004.
Cross, Frank Moore. Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1973.
Cross, Frank Moore. From Epic to Canon: History and Literature in Ancient Israel. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
Derrida, Jacques. Of Hospitality. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.
Faust, Avraham. “The rural community in ancient Israel during Iron Age II.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Pages 17-39. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1357482, 2000.
Gerstenberger, Erhard S. Theologies in the Old Testament. London: T & T Clark, 2002.
Good, Edwin Marshal. Irony in the Old Testament, 2nd ed. Sheffield: The Almond Press, 1981.
Gravett, Sandra L., Karla G. Bohmbach, and F.V. Greifenhagen, eds. An introduction to the Hebrew Bible: A thematic Approach. Westminster: John Knox Press, 2008.
Grogan, GW. “The Old Testament concept of solidarity in Hebrews.” Tyndale Bulletin 49(1). Pages. 159-173. 1998.
Hahn, Scott W. Kinship by Covenant: A Canonical Approach to the Fulfillment of God’s Saving Promises. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.
Hall, John Stuart. From Cannibalism to Christ: A story of the Transforming Power of the Gospel in Darkest Africa. Toronto: Evangelical Publishers, 1944.
Hartley, John E. Genesis: Understanding the Bible Commentary Series. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2000.
Higazi, Adam, and Jimam Lar. “Articulations of belonging: The Politics of ethnic and religious pluralism in Bauchi and Gombe states, north-east Nigeria.” Africa 85(1). Pages 103-130. https://doi.org/10.1017/S00019720140007 95 2015.
Jenni, Ernst and Claus Westermann, eds. Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3 vols. (trans. Mark E. Biddle). Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1997.
Kearney, Richard. “Hospitality: Possible or Impossible?” Hospitality & Society, 5(2-3), pages 173-184, 2015.
Kessler, Rainer. The Social History of Ancient Israel: An Introduction. Translated by Linda M Maloney. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2008.
Köhler, Ludwg, Walter Baumgartner, Johann Jakob Stamm, and Benedikt Hartmann. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (HALOT). 4 vols. Leiden: Brill, 1994-2000.
Letellier, Robert Ignatius. Day in Mamre, Night in Sodom: Abraham and Lot in Genesis 18 and 19. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1995.
McNutt, Paula M. Reconstructing the society of ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press, 1999.
Otto, Eckart. “Law and Legislation: Old Testament.” In Betz, HD et al. (eds.). Religion Past and Present: Encyclopedia of Theology and Religion. Vol. VII. Leiden, Boston: Brill. Pp. 370 -372, 2010.
Otto, Eckart. “Scribal Scholarship in the Formation of Torah and Prophets: A Postexilic Debate between Priestly Scholarship and Literary Prophecy – The Example of the Book of Jeremiah and its Relation to the Pentateuch.” Pages 171-184 in The Pentateuch as Torah: New Models for Understanding its Promulgation and Acceptance. Edited by Knoppers, Gary and Bernard M. Levinson. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 2007.
Reno, Russel R. Genesis: Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible. Grand Rapids: Brazos, 2010.
Robbins, Vernon K. Exploring the Texture of Texts: A Guide to Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International, 1996.
Rogerson, John W. “The Hebrew Conception of Corporate Personality: A Re-Examination.” The Journal of Theological Studies. New Series, 21(1). Pages 1-16. http://www.jstor.org.ez.sun.ac.za/stable/23957332. 1970.
Sarna, Nahum M. Genesis: The JPS Torah Commentary. Philadelphia: the Jewish Publication Society, 1989.
Schniedewind, William M. 2004. How the Bible Became a Book: The Textualization of Ancient Israel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Sharp, Caroline J. Irony and Meaning in the Hebrew Bible. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009
Tadi, Nereus Yerima. Sam Kwi Bolji: Tangle Proverbs and their Contexts. Zaria. Ahmadu Bello University Press, 2013.
VanGemeren, Willem A., ed. New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis (NIDOTTE). 5 vols. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1997.
Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 16-50: Word biblical commentary. Dallas, Texas: Word Books, 1994.
Westermann, Claus. Genesis 12–36: A commentary. Translated by John J. Scullion. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1985.