Old Testament Essays https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal <p>ISSN&nbsp;2312-3621</p> <h3>&nbsp;</h3> <h3>Welkom!</h3> <p>Welkom by&nbsp;<em>Old Testament Essays</em>, die amptelike joernaal van die OTWSA. Hierdie webtuiste dien as platform vir die instuur en portuurbeoordeling ("peer reviewing") van artikels. Sedert middel-2014 word dié prosesse volledig aanlyn bedryf. As u nog nie met hierdie stelsel gewerk het nie, laai gerus die gidse hieronder af; dit verduidelik die gebruik van die stelsel in eenvoudige terme.&nbsp;<em>Let wel: weens tegniese beperkings is dié stelsel slegs in Engels beskikbaar.</em></p> <p>LET WEL: U kan meer lees oor OTE se redaksionele beleid en riglyne op die <a href="/ote/index.php/journal/pages/view/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"About"-bladsy</a>.</p> <h3>Welcome!</h3> <p>Welcome to Old Testament Essays, the official journal of the OTSSA. This website serves as platform for the submission and peer reviewing of articles. Since mid-2014, these processes are fully handled online. If you are new to this system, please read our guidelines and download our guides below; they explain the use of the system in easy terms.</p> <p>NOTE: You can read more about OTE's editorial policies and guidelines on the <a href="/ote/index.php/journal/pages/view/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"About" page</a>.</p> <h3>Download guides</h3> <p><a class="button defaultButton" title="Download guide for registering an account" href="http://www.otwsa-otssa.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/OTE-1-HowToRegisterAnAccount.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">1. How to register an account</a><br><a class="button" title="Download guide for article authors" href="http://www.otwsa-otssa.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/OTE-2-ForAuthors.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2. Guide for article authors</a><br><a class="button" title="Download guide for peer reviewers" href="http://www.otwsa-otssa.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/OTE-3-ForReviewers.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">3. Guide for peer reviewers</a></p> <p>If you have any remaining questions after reading the guides, please contact the editor at <a href="mailto:%6f%74%65-%65%64%69%74%6f%72@%6f%74%77%73%61-%6f%74%73%73%61.%63%6f.%7a%61">ote-editor@otwsa-otssa.co.za</a>.</p> OTSSA-OTWSA en-US Old Testament Essays 1010-9919 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br><br></p> <ol> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Preliminary Pages and Table of Contents https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/377 <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a1"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a1&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:1323649,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1,&quot;23&quot;:2}" data-sheets-hyperlink="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a1">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a1</span></a></p> Hulisani Ramantswana Copyright (c) 2020 Hulisani Ramantswana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 33 1 1 7 Editorial https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/378 <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a2"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a2&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:1323649,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1,&quot;23&quot;:2}" data-sheets-hyperlink="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a2">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a2</span></a></p> Hulisani Ramantswana Copyright (c) 2020 Hulisani Ramantswana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 33 1 8 9 Reading Trauma Narratives: Insidious Trauma in the Story of Rachel, Leah, Bilhah and Zilpah (Genesis 29-30) and Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/352 <p>This article investigates the notion of insidious trauma as a helpful means of interpreting the story of Rachel, Leah, Bilhah and Zilpah as told in Genesis 29-30 that has found its way into the haunting trauma narrative of Margaret Atwood’s <em>The Handmaid’s Tale.</em></p> <p>In the first instance, this article outlines the category of insidious trauma as it is situated in terms of the broader field of trauma hermeneutics, as well as the way in which it relates to the related disciplines of feminist and womanist biblical interpretation. This article will then continue to show how insidious trauma features in two very different, though intrinsically connected trauma narratives, i.e., the world imagined by Atwood in <em>The Handmaid’s Tale,</em> and the biblical narrative regarding the four women through whose reproductive efforts the house of Israel had been built that served as the inspiration for Atwood’s novel.</p> <p>This article argues that these trauma narratives, on the one hand, reflect the ongoing effects of systemic violation in terms of gender, race and class, but also how, embedded in these narratives there are signs of resistance that serve as the basis of survival of the self and also of others.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a3"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a3&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:1323649,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1,&quot;23&quot;:2}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a3</span></a></p> Juliana Claassens Copyright (c) 2020 Juliana Claassens https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 33 1 10 31 Trauma and Post-Trauma in the Book of Ezekiel https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/354 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Reading the Book of Ezekiel in the light of modern sociological and psychological research dealing with emigration, exile and refugees, leads to a better and brighter understanding of the human experience in the Babylonian exile. In Ezekiel's oracles, prophecies and speeches (especially texts such as Ezekiel 3:22-27, 4:4-8 and chapters 16; 23) there are signs of post-traumatic symptoms, not necessarily individual, rather communal. The present article examines the texts in question in the light of clinical, sociological and philosophical literature dealing with forced-migration related trauma.</span></p> <p class="Abstract">&nbsp;</p> <p class="Abstract"><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a4"><span lang="EN-GB"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a4&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:1323649,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1,&quot;23&quot;:2}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a4</span></span></a></p> Refael Furman Copyright (c) 2020 Refael Furman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 33 1 32 59 Featuring of Islam in the writings, particularly Old Testament commentaries, of Adrianus Van Selms (1906-1984) https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/334 <p>Adrianus van Selms is well known for especially two studies related to Islam, viz.&nbsp; a Muslim Catechism (1951) and a publication entitled 'Abu Bakr’s Exposition of the Religion’ (1979). Both feature Afrikaans texts, dating from the second half of the 19th century, written in Arabic letters for the benefit of the local population.</p> <p>Van Selms, furthermore, contributed to an Afrikaans publication with the title <em>In Gesprek met Islam oor die Moslem Belydenis</em> [In Conversation with Islam as regards the Muslim Confession of Faith] (1974), providing an elaborate discussion with respect to Islam against the background of the Old and New Testaments and Church History. Van Selms, inter alia, opined, “For reasons concealed from us, it pleased God to chastise his church with Muslims’ words and conduct.” Similar statements are found in 8th and 9th century Christian polemical texts (cf. Griffiths 2008).</p> <p>In his books focusing on Jerusalem and Northern Israel, Van Selms (1967) expresses his appreciation for the Muslim material culture, and customs related to those practised in Old and New Testament times.</p> <p>For the purpose of the present paper, however, attention will specifically be given to the contextualisation of references to Islam in Van Selms’ biblical commentaries, for example the mentioning of a tradition recounted by al-Tabari (839-923 CE) during the exposition of Gen 3:1; a comparison of Muslim and biblical rules of marital conduct (Ex 21:21) that come to the fore in Gen 30:14-6; and finally the parallels drawn between the religious exclusivity evident in Ezra 10:11 and the Muslim concept of <em>ummah</em>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a5"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a5&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:1323649,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1,&quot;23&quot;:2}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a5</span></a></p> Muhammad Ashraf Ebrahim Dockrat Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Ashraf Ebrahim Dockrat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 33 1 60 79 Die Bedeutung des Ausdrucks „am Tag …“ in Genesis 2,4 im Rahmen des Pentateuch https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/326 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The interpretation of bəjôm in Gen 2:4 as “when” in the sense of an unspecific period of time has often been used as an argument to defend an allegorical or figurative interpretation of the days of creation. A comparison with parallel grammatical constructions throughout the Pentateuch casts severe doubts on that idea, which are confirmed by a closer exegetical analysis of bəjôm in Gen 2:4b in its individual literary contexts (Gen&nbsp;2:4a, 1:1, 2:5-3:24, especially the parallel narrative sequence following 5:1-2). Without “Systemzwang,” all arguments point to the natural understanding of bəjôm in Gen 2:4 as “in the day,” referring to a specific day, the first day of creation.</span></p> <p class="Abstract">&nbsp;</p> <p class="Abstract"><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a6"><span lang="EN-GB"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a6&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:1323649,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1,&quot;23&quot;:2}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a6</span></span></a></p> Siegbert Riecker Hendrik Koorevaar Copyright (c) 2020 Siegbert Riecker, Hendrik Koorevaar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 33 1 80 106 “The Future in the Land belongs to us”: Conflicting Perceptions on the Land in Jeremiah 32:1-44 (LXX 39:1-44) https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/340 <p>This article examines Jeremiah 32, a chapter closely linked to the purchase of a field in Anathoth by the prophet Jeremiah at a time when the fall of Jerusalem in 587 B.C.E. was imminent. Jeremiah 32 is a multi-layered text presenting evidence of the adaptation of Jeremiah’s sign-act by various groups. While it is likely that the oldest core, verses 6b-15, presents the perspective of the people remaining in Judah after 587 B.C.E., in its final form the chapter promotes the interests of the Babylonian exiles. Although the uncovering of conflicting perceptions with regard to the land demonstrates that the use of Jeremiah 32 in present-day reflections on the land question is risky, the chapter highlights the importance of land issues. It furthermore demonstrates that biblical texts, applied in contemporary land issues, should be subjected to exhaustive redactional analyses. The different redactional stages of the texts may reveal conflicting ideologies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a7"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a7&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:1323649,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1,&quot;23&quot;:2}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a7</span></a></p> Marius Daniel Terblanche Copyright (c) 2020 Marius Daniel Terblanche https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 33 1 107 124 The Law and Society in the Old Testament: Formulation and Implementation of the Law in Ancient Israel https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/289 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Various laws were practised in ancient Israel. Although the present study will introduce briefly the concept of law as practised in Ancient Near East (ANE) in general, the project focuses particularly on ancient Israel as depicted by the Old Testament (OT) law traditions. The study seeks to investigate two main issues, namely: (1) formulation and implementation of the laws in ancient Israel, and (2) the application of the OT laws during the New Testament (NT) era and in Christendom. An attempt is made to respond to the following three research questions: (1) how were the OT laws formulated and implemented? (2) Were the OT laws the same as those practised by pagan nations or kings? (3) what is the NT/Christian view of the OT laws? In its entirety, the discourse will utilise two approaches, namely: (1) narrative inquiry, and (2) desk research.</span></p> <p class="Abstract">&nbsp;</p> <p class="Abstract"><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a8"><span lang="EN-GB"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a8&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:1323649,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1,&quot;23&quot;:2}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a8</span></span></a></p> Temba Rugwiji Copyright (c) 2020 Temba Rugwiji https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 33 1 125 142 Returning to Yahweh and Yahweh’s Return: Aspects of שׁוּב in the Book of Malachi https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/365 <p>This article examines aspects of שׁוּב in the book of Malachi against the background of an obvious complementary and inadequate pattern of Israel/Judah’s repentance and incomplete restoration. As people whose history is characterised by covenant failure and refusal to repent, the book of Malachi present a robust conglomeration of persistent noncompliance and rebellion of the postexilic Yehudite community, thus making her guilty of unfaithfulness and unworthy of Yahweh’s restoration. The article surveys aspects of שׁוּב in three relative books of the Book of the Twelve and then examines three seemingly connected aspects; namely, Torah compliance, return to the right cult and Yahweh’s return in the book of Malachi. What emerges at the end of this article is that Israel/Judah’s hope of spiritual revitalisation, and complete restoration, is her faithful and wholehearted return to the right cult and to Yahweh’s Torah.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a9"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a9&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:1323649,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1,&quot;23&quot;:2}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a9</span></a></p> Blessing Onoriode Boloje Copyright (c) 2020 Blessing Onoriode Boloje https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 33 1 143 161 The Death of Samson https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/330 <p>This article examines the story of Samson’s death. From the time that he was captured by the Philistines until his death, the Bible describes at length the events that led to his downfall. This includes three major parts. The first Philistine event was jubilation at the temple of their god Dagon, which consists of two short rhymes which appear in poetic form. This was followed by Samson’s plea for God’s help and the destruction of the Philistine’s temple. The last part mentions Samson’s burial. Examination of the Philistine’s rhymes reveals that they ascribe Samson’s downfall to their god, which adds a religious dimension to the story. Samson was the only person whose death wish was granted. His death wish is similar to other death wishes from the ancient world. The mention of his burial and its location links the end of the story to its beginning, which is the story of his birth.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a10"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a10&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:1323649,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1,&quot;23&quot;:2}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a10</span></a></p> Shaul Bar Copyright (c) 2020 Shaul Bar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 33 1 162 174 Book Review https://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/379 <p>Georg Fischer, <em>Genesis 1–11</em>, Herders Theologischer Kommentar zum Alten Testament, Freiburg i. Br.: Herder, 2018, 752 pages, hardcover, € 115.00, ISBN 978-3-451-26801-4.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a11"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a11&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:1323649,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1,&quot;23&quot;:2}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2020/v33n1a11</span></a></p> Benjamin Kilchör Copyright (c) 2020 Benjamin Kilchör https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 33 1 175 177