Changing One’s Tune: Re-reading the Structure of Psalm 132 as Complex Antiphony
Complex antiphony, which allows dialogue between non-linearly adjacent cola in a psalm, provides the potential for re-reading problematic Hebrew texts such as Psalm 132. This article studies the two main structural options that have been proposed for Psalm 132, arguing in preference for the minority view that places a major break after v. 9. It is then argued, based on this minority structure, that the multiple distinctive types of literary bonds between the two halves of the psalm point towards a form of complex antiphony known as steady responsa. It is then shown that such a steady responsa reading of Psalm 132 addresses some of the critical exegetical problems of the psalm, such as the referent of the pronominal suffixes in v. 6. In addition, this reading also reveals a coherent and rich petitionary rhetoric in Psalm 132.
Allen, Leslie C. Psalms 101–150. Revised ed. WBC 21. Waco, TX: Word, 2002.
Amzallag, Gérard Nissim. “The Musical Mode of Writing of the Psalms and Its Significance.” OTE 27.1 (2014): 17–40.
———. “Psalm 87 and the Cosmopolitan Musical Worship of YHWH.” VT 64 (2014): 361–81.
———. “The Meaning of Todah in the Title of Psalm 100.” ZAW 126.4 (2014): 535–45.
———. “Praise or Antiphonal Singing?: The Meaning ofלהודות Revisited.” HS 56.1 (2015): 115–28.
———. “Psalm 67 and the Cosmopolite Musical Worship of YHWH.” BBR 25 (2015): 31–48.
———. “Foreign Yahwistic Singers in the Jerusalem Temple?: Evidence from Psalm 92.” SJOT 31.2 (2017): 213–35.
Amzallag, Gérard Nissim, and Mikhal Avriel. “Complex Antiphony in Psalms 121, 126 and 128: The Steady Responsa Hypothesis.” OTE 23.3 (2010): 502–18.
———. “The Canonic Responsa Reading of Psalm 114 and Its Theological Significance.” OTE 24 (2011): 303–23.
———. “Responsive Voices in the Song of the Sea (Exodus 15:1-21).” JBQ 40.4 (2012): 211–24.
———. “Psalm 122 as the Song Performed at the Ceremony of Dedication of the City Wall of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 12,27-43).” SJOT 30.1 (2016): 44–64.
Amzallag, Nissim, and Shamir Yona. “The Unusual Mode of Editing of KTU 1.65.” UF 45 (2014): 35–48.
———. “What Does ‘Maskil’ in the Heading of a Psalm Mean?” ANES 53 (2016): 41–57.
Auffret, Pierre. La sagasse a bâti sa maison: Études de structure littéraires dan l’Ancien Testament et spécialement dan les psaumes. OBO 49. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1982.
Barbiero, Gianni. “Psalm 132: A Prayer of ‘Solomon.’” CBQ 75.2 (2013): 239–58.
Booij, Thijs. “Psalm 132: Zion’s Well-Being.” Biblica 90.1 (2009): 75–83.
Briggs, Charles Augustus, and Emilie Grace Briggs. The Book of Psalms. 2 vols. ICC. New York: Schribner’s Sons, 1907.
Brueggemann, Walter, and William H. Jr. Bellinger. Psalms. NCBC. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Crow, Loren D. Songs of Ascents (Psalms 120–134): Their Place in Israelite History and Religion. SBLDS 48. Atlanta: SBL Press, 1996.
Dahood, Mitchell. Psalms III, 101–150. AB 17a. New York: Doubleday, 1970.
Delitzsch, Franz. Biblical Commentary on the Psalms. Translated by Francis Bolton. 3 vols. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1871.
Emmendörffer, Michael. Der ferne Gott: Eine Untersuchung der alttestamentlichen Volksklagelieder vor dem Hintergrund der mesopotamischen Literatur. FAT 21. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1996.
Fokkelman, J.P. Major Poems of the Hebrew Bible at the Interface of Prosody and Structural Analysis (Volume II: 86 Psalms and Job 4-14). SSN. Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 2000.
Fretheim, Terence Erling. “Psalm 132: A Form-Critical Study.” JBL 86.3 (1967): 289–300.
Geller, Stephen A. Parallelism in Early Biblical Poetry. HSM 20. Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1979.
Gerstenberger, Erhard S. Psalms, Part 2, and Lamentations. FOTL 15. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001.
Goldingay, John. Psalms: Volume 3, Psalms 90–150. BCOTWP. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2008.
Grohmann, Marianne. Fruchtbarkeit und Geburt in den Psalmen. FAT 53. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2007.
Gunkel, Hermann. Die Psalmen. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1929.
Hillers, Delbert R. “Ritual Procession of the Ark and Ps 132.” CBQ 30.1 (1968): 48–55.
Hossfeld, Frank-Lothar. “König David im Wallfahrtspsalter.” Pages 219–33 in Ein Herz so Weit wie der Sand am Ufer des Meeres: Festschrift für Georg Hentschel. Edited by Susanne Gillmayr-Bucher. ETS 90. Würzburg: Echter, 2006.
Hossfeld, Frank-Lothar, and Erich Zenger. Psalms 3: A Commentary on Psalms 101–150. Translated by Linda M. Maloney. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2011.
Huwiler, Elizabeth F. “Patterns and Problems in Psalm 132.” Pages 199–215 in Listening Heart: Essays in Wisdom and the Psalms in Honor of Roland E. Murphy. Edited by Kenneth G. Hoglund. JSOTSup 58. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 1987.
Keel, Othmar. The Symbolism of the Biblical World: Ancient Near Eastern Iconography and the Book of Psalms. Translated by Timothy J. Hallett. New York: Crossroad, 1985.
Keet, C.C. A Study of the Psalms of Ascents: A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Psalms 120–134. London: Mitre, 1969.
Kraus, Hans-Joachim. Psalms 60–150. Translated by Hilton C. Oswald. CC. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993.
Kruse, Heinz. “Psalm 132 and the Royal Zion Festival.” VT 33.3 (1983): 279–97.
Kugel, James L. The Idea of Biblical Poetry: Parallelism and Its History. Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
Laato, Antti. “Psalm 132 and the Development of the Jerusalemite/Israelite Royal Ideology.” CBQ 54.1 (1992): 49–66.
Lamparter, H. Das Buch der Psalmen II. BAT 15. Stuttgart: Calwer, 1959.
Lugt, Pieter van der. Cantos and Strophes in Biblical Hebrew Poetry with Special Reference to the First Book of the Psalter. OTS 53. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2006.
Mays, James Luther. Psalms. IBC. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1994.
Moshavi, Adina. Word Order in the Biblical Hebrew Finite Clause. LSAWS 4. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2010.
Ockinga, Boyo G. “An Example of Egyptian Royal Phraseology in Psalm 132.” BN 11 (1980): 38–42.
Robinson, A. “Do Ephrathah and Jaar Really Appear in Psalm 132 6?” ZAW 86 (1974): 220–22.
Schreiner, J. Sion-Jerusalem Jahwehs Königssitz: Theologie der heiligen Stadt im Alten Testament. SANT 7. Munich: Kösel, 1963.
Slotki, Israel W. “Antiphony in Ancient Hebrew Poetry.” JQR 26.3 (1936): 199–219.
Weiser, Artur. The Psalms: A Commentary. Translated by Herbert Hartwell. OTL. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press, 1962.
Wendland, Ernest. “The Forms and Functions of Disjunctive Parallelism in the Psalter, with Special Reference to Psalm 132.” JSem 26.1 (2017): 123–57.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).