Key Themes in Zechariah 1-8
The discussion of key themes or the message of Zechariah 1-8 is neglected in commentaries that were published during the past five years. This article focuses on this neglected part of Zechariah research and investigates the following key themes: YHWH’s divine presence and the rebuilding of the temple in Zion; The lordship and sovereignty of YHWH; Sin and punishment/judgment; Turn to YHWH (repentance) and obedience; YHWH’s return, grace, love and forgiveness; Realized eschatology and future hope; Israel and the nations; and Leadership. One cannot really say that there are any unique themes in Zechariah 1-8 or that the author/s had one central theme in mind. There are many similarities with other books in the OT, especially the post-exilic prophetic books. However, we must acknowledge that Zechariah 1-8 places more emphasis on certain themes and discusses them in a unique way.
Boda, Mark J. Haggai, Zechariah. NIVAC. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2004.
________. The Book of Zechariah. NICOT. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2016.
Craigie, Peter C. Twelve Prophets Volume 2: Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The Daily Study Bible (OT). Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1985.
Foster, Robert. “Undoing the Future: The Theology of the Book of Zechariah.” Horizons in Biblical Theology 34 (2012): 59-72.
Fourie, Louis C. H. “Die Struktuur en Kerugma van Sagaria 1-8.” DTh dissertation, Stellenbosch University, 1991.
Goldingay, John and Pamela J. Scalise. Minor Prophets II. Understanding the Bible Commentary Series. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2009.
Graigie, Peter C. Twelve Prophets: Vol 2. The Daily Study Bible (OT). Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1985.
Hill, Andrew E. Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. TOTC 28. Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2012.
Kessler, John. “Reconstructing Haggai’s Jerusalem: Demographic and Sociological Considerations and the Search for an Adequate Methodoligcal Point of Departure.” Pages 137-158 in ‘Every City shall be Forsaken’: Urbanism and Prophecy in Ancient Israel and the Near East. Edited by Lester L. Grabbe and Robert D. Haak. JSOTSupp 330. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001
Klein, George L. Zechariah. NAC. Nashville, Tennessee: B &H Publishing Group, 2008.
Levin, Schneir. “Zerubbabel: A Riddle.” JBQ 24/1 (1996): 14-17.
Mason, Rex A. The Books of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. The Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
McComiskey, Thomas Edward. The Minor Prophets: An Exegical and Expository Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2009.
Metttinger, Tryggve N. D. “YAHWEH ZEBAOTH,” Pages 920-924 in Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Edited by Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking & Pieter W. van der Horst. Brill: Leiden, 1999.
Meyers, Carol L. and Meyers, Eric M. Haggai, Zechariah 1-8. AB 25B. New York: Doubleday, 1987.
Nogalski, James D. The Book of the Twelve: Micah-Malachi. Smyth & Helwys Bible Commentary. Macon, Georgia: Smyth & Helwys Publishing, 2011.
O’Brien, Julia M. Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. AOTC. Nashville: Abingdon Press. 2004.
O’Kennedy, Daniel F. “The Theological Portrayal of Forgiveness in Zechariah 1-8.” Scriptura 84 (2003): 410-422.
________ “The Use of the Epithet יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת in Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi.” JNSL 33/1 (2007): 77-99.
________ “Sagaria 1-8: ‘n Algemene oorsig.” NGTT 49/1&2 (2008): 66-79.
________ “Haggai and Zechariah 1-8: Diarchic Model of Leadership in a Rebuilding Phase.” Scriptura 102 (2009): 579-593.
________ “The Shepherd Imagery in Zechariah 9-14.” OTE 22/2 (2009): 404-421.
________ “Perspectives on Mission in the Book of Zechariah.” Missionalia 41/3 (2013): 223-238.
Ollenburger, Ben C. “The Book of Zechariah.” Pages 733-840 in vol. 7 of The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. Edited by Leander E. Keck et al. Nashvillle: Abingdon Press, 1996.
Petterson, Anthony R. Haggai, Zechariah & Malachi. AOTC. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 2015.
Redditt, Paul L. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. NCBC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.
________ “Themes in Haggai-Zechariah-Malachi.” Int 61/2 (2007): 184-197.
Rose, Wolter H. Zemah and Zerubbabel. Messianic Expectations in the Early Postexilic Period. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000.
Waters, Matt. Ancient Persia: A Concise History of the Achaemenid Empire, 550-330 BCE. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Wolters, Al. “Zechariah, Book of.” Pages 889-899 in Dictionary of the Old Testament Prophets. Edited by Mark J. Boda and J. Gordon McConville. Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Academic, 2012.
________ Zechariah. HCOT. Leuven: Peeters, 2014.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).