Old Testament Essays http://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal <p>ISSN&nbsp;2312-3621</p> <h3>&nbsp;</h3> <h3>Welkom!</h3> <p>Welkom by&nbsp;<em>Old Testament Essays</em>, die amptelike joernaal van die OTWSA. Hierdie webtuiste dien as platform vir die instuur en portuurbeoordeling ("peer reviewing") van artikels. Sedert middel-2014 word dié prosesse volledig aanlyn bedryf. As u nog nie met hierdie stelsel gewerk het nie, laai gerus die gidse hieronder af; dit verduidelik die gebruik van die stelsel in eenvoudige terme.&nbsp;<em>Let wel: weens tegniese beperkings is dié stelsel slegs in Engels beskikbaar.</em></p> <p>LET WEL: U kan meer lees oor OTE se redaksionele beleid en riglyne op die <a href="/ote/index.php/journal/pages/view/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"About"-bladsy</a>.</p> <h3>Welcome!</h3> <p>Welcome to Old Testament Essays, the official journal of the OTSSA. This website serves as platform for the submission and peer reviewing of articles. Since mid-2014, these processes are fully handled online. If you are new to this system, please read our guidelines and download our guides below; they explain the use of the system in easy terms.</p> <p>NOTE: You can read more about OTE's editorial policies and guidelines on the <a href="/ote/index.php/journal/pages/view/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"About" page</a>.</p> <h3>Download guides</h3> <p><a class="button defaultButton" title="Download guide for registering an account" href="http://www.otwsa-otssa.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/OTE-1-HowToRegisterAnAccount.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">1. How to register an account</a><br><a class="button" title="Download guide for article authors" href="http://www.otwsa-otssa.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/OTE-2-ForAuthors.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2. Guide for article authors</a><br><a class="button" title="Download guide for peer reviewers" href="http://www.otwsa-otssa.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/OTE-3-ForReviewers.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">3. Guide for peer reviewers</a></p> <p>If you have any remaining questions after reading the guides, please contact the editor at <a href="mailto:%6f%74%65-%65%64%69%74%6f%72@%6f%74%77%73%61-%6f%74%73%73%61.%63%6f.%7a%61">ote-editor@otwsa-otssa.co.za</a>.</p> OTSSA-OTWSA en-US Old Testament Essays 1010-9919 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br><br></p> <ol> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Preliminary Pages and Table of Content http://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/361 Hulisani Ramantswana Copyright (c) 2019 Old Testament Essays 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 32 3 791 797 Editorial http://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/362 Hulisani Ramantswama Copyright (c) 2019 Old Testament Essays 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 32 3 798 799 Extravagant Rituals or Ethical Religion (Micah 6:6– 8)? Ritual Interface with Social Responsibility in Micah http://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/292 <p>The phenomenon of ritual criticism in prophetic writings of the HB/OT is one that highlights the discrepancy between ritual and lifestyle on the one hand and emphasizes the significance of rituals for the improvement of ethical life of people. Rituals are viewed as Ancient Israelite’s vertical dimension of the relationship between God and man while ethics are its horizontal components (man to man relationship). In Micah, rituals are presented as acts of people’s relationship with Yahweh (worship, offering and sacrifices) that do not impact positively on the horizontal dimension (social justice). This dysfunction of relationship is poignantly addressed by Micah as his oracle switches from confrontation to reconciliation. This article addresses the confrontation between Yahweh and Israel/Judah by juxtaposing two dominant spheres of Israel/Judah’s religious life; ritual and lifestyle. Micah 6:6–8 stands in sharp contrast to the extravagance and mockery of rituals and as an alternative presents a message most profound and insightful for an invaluable decision. A truly ethical religion, Micah holds, is not about extravagant rituals but personal duty and responsibility for fulfilling that duty in society.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a3"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a3&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:275073,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a3</span></a></p> Blessing Onoriode Boloje Copyright (c) 2019 Old Testament Essays 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 32 3 800 820 Negotiating an Eco-conscious Translation of the Hebrew Bible: Jonah 3:1–10 as Test Case http://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/324 <p>The last two centuries have seen a growing focus on matters concerned with the natural environment. This is not only true for the natural sciences, but all fields of inquiry, including that of theology and religion.&nbsp;Building on the work of eco-theologians and scholars of eco-hermeneutics, this article aims to determine whether, and to what extent,&nbsp;translation has a role to play in promoting these efforts. Consequently, using Eco’s (2004) notion of “translation as negotiation” as blueprint, the author first delineates what an eco-conscious translation entails before showing its practical application in Jonah 3:1–10. In the end, such a rendering does not diverge too much from the Hebrew text or other more established English translations. However, the changes it introduces are ideologically significant. Moreover, the process may prove to be an important tool if the Judeo-Christian tradition still has a role to play in battling different environmental challenges.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a4"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a4&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:275073,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a4</span></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Cornelis Johannes Redelinghuys Copyright (c) 2019 Old Testament Essays 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 32 3 821 845 “For I Hate Divorce,” says the Lord: Interpreting Malachi 2:16 in Relation to Prohibition of Divorce in some Churches in Nigeria http://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/273 <p>This article examined Mal 2:16 in relation to the prohibition of divorce today in some churches in Nigeria. The text is perhaps the most commonly quoted passage by preachers to support prohibition of divorce, possibly because many of the English versions make it a direct condemnation from God and preachers rarely consider other English versions that read differently. It was found out that the passage relates to certain Jewish men who divorced their native wives and married women of foreign faiths. It was also discovered that in view of Deut 24:1-4, among other OT texts, Mal 2:16 could not have prohibited divorce. Rather, what it condemns is the purpose of the divorce, namely to marry women of foreign faiths. Hence, Mal 2:16 is relevant in contemporary Nigeria, not as a prohibition of divorce, but in the context of marriage abandonment.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a5"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a5&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:275073,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a5</span></a></p> Solomon Olusola Ademiluka Copyright (c) 2019 Old Testament Essays 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 32 3 846 868 The Travail of Pain: An Interpretive Perspective from Scripture http://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/338 <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10.66px; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;">The concept of pain and grieving in the Hebrew Bible is often linked to the context of travail in the birthing process. This perspective suggests that experiences and emotions of pain are associated with feelings of deep distress which, when properly resolved, give way to positive dimensions of care, hope and empowerment as well as the vitality to face new challenges of life. This paper investigates the conceptualization of pain in Scripture from linguistic expressions and ceremonial practices. It compares these findings with phenomenological perspectives of childbirth experiences and how these can assist to explain biblical labour metaphors. The aim is to show how the conceptualization of pain in Scripture can assist to resolve pain in contemporary contexts.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10.66px; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10.66px; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a6"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a6&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:275073,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a6</span></a></p> Gudrun Eli Lier Copyright (c) 2019 Old Testament Essays 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 32 3 869 884 The Intersection of Biblical Lament and Psychotherapy in the Healing of Trauma Memories http://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/283 <p>A study of biblical lament psalms can help present-day sufferers express their own pain to God, and this can result in personal, social, and biological healing. In this empirical study, Zulu “pain-bearers” first studied Psalms 3 and 13 and then wrote and performed their own laments, using the biblical laments as a model. The use of poetic form is shown to have advantages over narrative therapy approaches.</p> <p><br>The empirical compositions and performances fit with the insights gained from cognitive psychotherapy approaches as well as the therapeutic steps proposed by Judith Herman. Moreover, apart from facilitating healing of the soul and interpersonal relations, the research insights of Cozolino and others suggest that lament can stimulate the biological healing of the brain, allowing for the healthy processing of the trauma memories.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a7"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a7&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:275073,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a7</span></a></p> June Frances Dickie Copyright (c) 2019 Old Testament Essays 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 32 3 885 907 Contrastive Characterization in Ruth 1:6–22: Three Ways to Return from Exile http://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/317 <p>By using the narrative device of contrastive characterization, the author of Ruth demonstrates three return-from-exile scenarios that act as a model for the audience. Orpah served as Ruth’s foil and represents a return to the pagan culture. Naomi and Ruth project a role reversal. While Naomi returns more like a pagan than a Jewess, Ruth has demonstrated covenant fidelity and illustrated loyalty to YHWH and Israel. She is thus a model for how Jews ought to return from exile to exodus.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a8"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a8&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:275073,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a8</span></a></p> Timothy L Decker Copyright (c) 2019 Old Testament Essays 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 32 3 908 935 Reading Psalm 35 in Africa (Yoruba) Perspective http://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/315 <p>Psalm 35 appears to be one of the scariest Psalms because of the various expressions of hate and the Psalmist invoking wrath and death on his enemies. In the Western context, it is not one of the favourites of the Psalms. However, in a Yoruba context, Psalm 35 is one of the favourites because of its use for purposes of defence, victory, and protection. The purpose of this article is to discuss how Psalm 35 is used in a Yoruba context to meet the peculiar need of Yoruba people against enemies. Although there are similarities and differences between Psalm 35 and Yoruba <em>ofo oro ogede</em>, the similarities actually influence Yoruba Christians and non-Christians to use Psalm 35 like <em>ofo</em> or <em>madarikan,</em> <em>orogede</em> with a firm belief that it contains a more mysterious power from God than the Yoruba <em>ofo, ogede</em> and <em>madarikan</em>. Psalm 35 is, therefore, read, memorized, chanted, sung or inscribed in parchment to express the African faith, and their personal origin from God. Psalm 35 is also read in order to motivate God to perform a miracle as he has done originally with the people of ancient Israel.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a9"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a9&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:275073,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a9</span></a></p> David Tuesday Adamo Copyright (c) 2019 Old Testament Essays 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 32 3 936 955 “Israel’s” Only Son? The complexity of Benjaminite identity between Judah and Joseph http://ote-journal.otwsa-otssa.org.za/index.php/journal/article/view/316 <p>Several studies in recent years have sought to articulate the significance of the tribe of Benjamin for historical and literary studies of the Hebrew Bible. This paper suggests that the received text of Genesis 35–50 both reflects and illumines the complexities of Israelite identity in the pre-exilic, Babylonian, and Persian periods. The fact that Benjamin is the only son born to “Israel” (other sons are born to “Jacob”) points to Israel’s origins in the land that came to be called “Benjaminite.” Between Josephites to the north and Judahites to the south, Benjaminites preserved a unique identity within the polities of Israel, Judah, Babylonian Yehud, and Persian Yehud. In Genesis 35 and 42–45 in particular, the silent character Benjamin finds himself in the middle of a tug-of-war between his brothers, particularly his full-brother Joseph and his half-brother Judah. The conciliatory message of the narrative of Genesis 35–50 for later communities comes into sharper focus when we see the compromise between tribal identities embedded in the text.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a10"><img src="https://koersjournal.org.za/public/site/images/editor/DOI_logo.svg_(2)_31.png" alt=""><span data-sheets-value="{&quot;1&quot;:2,&quot;2&quot;:&quot;https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a10&quot;}" data-sheets-userformat="{&quot;2&quot;:275073,&quot;3&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:0},&quot;10&quot;:2,&quot;12&quot;:0,&quot;15&quot;:&quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;16&quot;:11,&quot;21&quot;:1}">https://doi.org/10.17159/2312-3621/2019/v32n3a10</span></a></p> Benjamin D. Giffone Copyright (c) 2019 Old Testament Essays 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 32 3 956 972