By using the narrative device of contrastive characterization, the author of Ruth demonstrates three return-from-exile scenarios that act as a model for the audience. Orpah served as Ruth’s foil and represents a return to the pagan culture. Naomi and Ruth project a role reversal. While Naomi returns more like a pagan than a Jewess, Ruth has demonstrated covenant fidelity and illustrated loyalty to YHWH and Israel. She is thus a model for how Jews ought to return from exile to exodus.
Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. Revised and Updated. New York: Basic Books, 2011.
———. The Art of Biblical Poetry. Revised and Updated. New York: Basic Books, 2011.
Auger, Peter. The Anthem Dictionary of Literary Terms and Theory. London: Anthem Press, 2010.
Baylis, Charles P. “Naomi in the Book of Ruth in Light of the Mosaic Covenant.” BSac 161.644 (2004): 413–31.
Berquist, Jon L. “Role Dedifferentiation in the Book of Ruth.” JSOT 18.57 (1993): 23–37.
Block, Daniel I. Judges, Ruth: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture. NAC. Nashville: B&H Publishing Group, 1999.
———. Ruth: A Discourse Analysis of the Hebrew Bible. ZECOT. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015.
Bovell, Carlos. “Symmetry, Ruth and Canon.” JSOT 28.2 (2003): 175–91.
Brenner, Athalya, ed. Feminist Companion to Ruth. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993.
Brown, Francis, S. R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs. The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. Reprint. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2005.
Bush, Frederic. Ruth, Esther. WBC. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996.
Callaham, Scott N. “But Ruth Clung to Her: Textual Constraints on Ambiguity in Ruth 1:14.” TynBul 63.2 (2012): 179–97.
Campbell, Jr., Edward F. Ruth: A New Translation with Introduction, Notes and Commentary. AB. New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Chisholm Jr., Robert B. From Exegesis to Exposition: A Practical Guide to Using Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1999.
Clines, David J. A., ed. The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. 8 vols. DCH. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2001.
Coxon, Peter W. “Was Naomi a Scold: A Response to Fewell and Gunn.” JSOT 14.45 (1989): 25–37.
Cross, Frank Moore. “Yahweh and the God of the Patriarchs.” HTR 55.4 (1962): 225–59.
Cundall, Arthur E., and Leon L. Morris. Judges and Ruth. TOTC. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2008.
Curtis, John Briggs. “Second Thoughts on the Purpose of the Book of Ruth.” Proceedings 16 (1996): 141–49.
Davis, Andrew R. “The Literary Effect of Gender Discord in the Book of Ruth.” JBL 132 (2013): 495–513.
Dearman, J. Andrew, and Sabelyn A. Pussman. “Putting Ruth in Her Place: Some Observations on Canonical Ordering and the History of the Book’s Interpretation.” HBT 27.1 (2005): 59–86.
Decker, Timothy L. “Ruth 1:1–5: An Exegetical and Expositional Proposal.” Conspectus 9.03 (2010): 33.
Fentress-Williams, Judy. Ruth. Abingdon OTC. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2012.
Fewell, Danna Nolan. “Space for Moral Agency in the Book of Ruth.” JSOT 40.1 (2015): 79–96.
Fewell, Danna Nolan, and David M. Gunn. “‘A Son Is Born to Naomi’: Literary Allusions and Interpretation in the Book of Ruth.” JSOT 13.40 (1988): 99–108.
———. Compromising Redemption: Relating Characters in the Book of Ruth. Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2009.
———. “Is Coxon a Scold? On Responding to the Book of Ruth.” JSOT 14.45 (1989): 39–43.
Fischer, Irmtraud. “The Book of Ruth as Exegetical Literature.” EJ 40.2 (2007): 140–49.
Freedman, Amelia Devin. “Naomi’s Experience of God and Its Treatment in the Book of Ruth.” Proceedings 23 (2003): 29–38.
Gesenius, Wilhelm. Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar. Edited by E. Kautzsch Translated by A. E. Cowley. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2006.
Gladson, Jerry A. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Ruth. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2012.
Glanzman, George S. “The Origin and Date of the Book of Ruth.” CBQ 21.2 (1959): 201–7.
Glover, Neil. “Your People, My People: An Exploration of Ethnicity in Ruth.” JSOT 33.3 (2009): 293–313.
Goswell, Greg. “The Order of the Books in the Greek Old Testament.” JETS 52 (2009): 449–66.
Grant, Reg. “Literary Structure in the Book of Ruth.” BSac 148.592 (1991): 424–41.
Guyette, Frederick. “The Book of Ruth: Solidarity, Kindness, and Peace.” Solidarity 3.1 (2013).
Hawk, L. Daniel. Ruth. Apollos OTC. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2015.
Holmstedt, Robert D. Ruth: A Handbook on the Hebrew Text. BHHB. Waco: Baylor University Press, 2010.
Hubbard, Robert L. The Book of Ruth. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988.
Hunter, Alastair G. “How Many Gods Had Ruth.” SJT 34.5 (1981): 427–36.
Hyman, Ronald T. “Questions and Changing Identity in the Book of Ruth.” USQR 39.3 (1984): 189–201.
Koosed, Jennifer L. Gleaning Ruth: A Biblical Heroine and Her Afterlives. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 2011.
Kugel, James. The Idea of Biblical Poetry: Parallelism and Its History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.
LaCocque, Andre. Ruth: A Continental Commentary. Translated by K. C. Hanson. CC. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2004.
Lau, Peter H. W. Identity and Ethics in the Book of Ruth: A Social Identity Approach. BZAW. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2011.
———. Unceasing Kindness: A Biblical Theology of Ruth. NSBT. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2016.
Linafelt, Tod. “Narrative and Poetic Art in the Book of Ruth.” Int 64 (2010): 117–29.
Linafelt, Tod, and Timothy K. Beal. Ruth and Esther. BO. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1999.
Mangrum, Benjamin. “Bringing ‘fullness’ to Naomi: Centripetal Nationalism in the Book of Ruth.” HBT 33.1 (2011): 62–81.
Meyers, Carol. “Returning Home: Ruth 1.8 and the Gendering of the Book of Ruth.” Pages 85–114 in Feminist Companion to Ruth. Edited by Athalya Brenner. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993.
Michael, Matthew. “The Art of Persuasion and the Book of Ruth: Literary Devices in the Persuasive Speeches of Ruth 1:6-18.” HS 56 (2015): 145–62.
Miller-McLemore, Bonnie J. “Returning to the ‘Mother’s House’: A Feminist Look at Orpah.” CC 108.13 (1991): 428–30.
Moore, Michael S. “To King or Not to King: A Canonical-Historical Approach to Ruth.” BBR 11.1 (2001): 27–41.
Myer, Jacob M. The Linguistic and Literary Form of the Book of Ruth. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1955.
Nielsen, Kirsten. Ruth: A Commentary. OTL. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1997.
Noth, Martin. Die israelitischen Personennamen im Rahmen der gemeinsemitischen Namengebung. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1928.
Pardee, Dennis. “The Semitic Root Mrr and the Etymology of Ugaritic Mr(r)//Brk.” UF 10 (1978): 249–88.
Queen-Sutherland, Kandy. Ruth & Esther. SHBC. Macon: Smyth & Helwys Publishing, 2016.
Rendtorff, Rolf. The Covenant Formula: An Exegetical and Theological Investigation. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1998.
Rossow, Francis C. “Literary Artistry in the Book of Ruth and Its Theological Significance.” ConJ 17.1 (1991): 12–19.
Sasson, Jack M. Ruth: A New Translation with a Philological Commentary and a Formalist-Folklorist Interpretation. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989.
Saxegaard, Kristin Moen. Character Complexity in the Book of Ruth. FAT. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010.
Schipper, Jeremy. Ruth: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. AYB. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016.
———. “The Syntax and Rhetoric of Ruth 1:9a.” VT 62.4 (2012): 642–45.
Sharp, Carolyn J. “Feminist Queries for Ruth and Joshua: Complex Characterization, Gapping, and the Possibility of Dissent.” SJOT 28 (2014): 229–52.
Smend, Rudolf. Die Bundesformel. ThSt. Zürich: EVZ-Verlag, 1963.
Smith, Mark S. “‘Your People Shall Be My People’: Family and Covenant in Ruth 1:16–17.” CBQ 69.2 (2007): 242–58.
Sternberg, Meir. The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Reading. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Thomas, Nancy J. “Weaving the Words: The Book of Ruth as Missiologically Effective Communication.” Missiology 30.2 (2002): 155–69.
Trible, Phyllis. God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1978.
Vuilleumier, René. “Stellung Und Bedeutung Des Buches Ruth Im Alttestamentlichen Kanon.” TZ 44.3 (1988): 193–210.
Waard, Jan de, and Eugene A. Nida. A Handbook on the Book of Ruth. Second. UBSHS. New York: United Bible Societies, 1992.
Wardlaw Jr., Terrance R. “Shaddai, Providence, and the Narrative Structure of Ruth.” JETS 58.1 (2015): 31–41.
West, Mona. “Ruth.” Pages 190–94 in The Queer Bible Commentary. Edited by Deryn Guest, Robert E. Gross, Mona West, and Thomas Bohache. London: SCM Press, 2006.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).