Patriarchy and Women Abuse: Perspectives from Ancient Israel and Africa

  • Solomon Olusola Ademiluka UNISA

Abstract

It is often claimed that women abuse inevitably emanates from patriarchy. Using ancient Israel and Africa as contexts, this article assesses the correlation between patriarchy and violence against women. The article suggests in these contexts, it is not all men are who are perpetrators of women abuse; rather, there is evidence of female perpetrators of sexual violence against men; and that in the ancient and modern societies, there is also homosexual violence. Rather than patriarchy, the major cause of women abuse is a personality disorder characterised, among other traits, by aggression against women, alcoholism and drug abuse – the latter two traits are often responsible for women abuse. Being accustomed to domestic violence from youth and low socio-economic status are also causes of women abuse.

References

Ackerman, Susan. “Women in Ancient Israel and the Hebrew Bible.” In Biblical Studies, Christianity, Judaism and Jewish Studies. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Online publication April 2016. 32 pages. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.45.

Ademiluka, S. Olusola. “1 Corinthians 14:33b-36 in Light of Women and Church Leadership in Nigeria.” Verbum et ecclesia 38/1 (2017). Article #1672. https://doi.org/10.4102/ve.v38i1.1672.

Adeyemi, Lere. “The Yoruba Cultural Values and the Ideology of Feminism.” Pages 49-58 in Multi-disciplinary Perspectives in Nigerian Studies. Edited by Rotimi Ajayi, Olu Alana, and Yemi Akinwumi. Ilorin: Nathdex, 1998.

Agbonkhese, Josephine and Chris Onuoha. “Does Nigerian Culture Permit Domestic Violence?” Vanguard 24 August 2017, https://tinyurl.com/ybyukpcw.

Agene, Monica. “The Reality of Domestic Violence in Nigeria.” Women for Women International, https://tinyurl.com/yc4g5gfv.

Goldsmith, Toby D. “Causes and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence.” National Institute of Justice. Online: https://tinyurl.com/ybngjblu.

Anon. “Rape.”Encyclopædia Britannica Student and Home Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.

Anon. “Personality Disorder.”Encyclopædia Britannica Student and Home Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.

Anon. “Causes and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence.” National Institute of Justice (2007). Online: https://tinyurl.com/ybngjblu.

Anon. “Intimate Partner Violence Prevention: Definitions.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Online: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention /intimatepartnerviolence/definitions.html.

Anon. “Patriarchy,” Merriam Webster Dictionary, https://tinyurl.com/y6wpaenl.

Anon. “Patriarchy.” Wikipedia, https://tinyurl.com/y7yzrgzc.

Anon. “What is Patriarchy?” London Feminist Network, https://tinyurl.com/y7yzrgzc.

Antai, Diddy. “Controlling Behavior, Power Relations within Intimate Relationships and Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence against Women in Nigeria.” BioMed Central Public Health 11 (2011), 11 pages, https://doi.org/10.1186 /1471-2458-11-511.

Babajide-Alabi, Morak. “Let’s Talk about Rape.” Vanguard 17 September 2017. https://tinyurl.com/ybdrwopv.

Baffour, Katherine. “Rape in Nigeria: Sexual Predators on the Prowl.” NAIJ.com, https://tinyurl.com/y74ae27n.

Baumert, Norbert, S. J. Woman and Man in Paul: Overcoming a Misunderstanding. Translated by Patrick Madigan, S. J., and Linda M. Maloney. Collegeville, Minnesota: Michael Glazier, 1996.

Becker, Mary. “Patriarchy and Inequality: Towards a Substantive Feminism.” University of Chicago Legal Forum 1/3 (1999): 21-88. Article #3. Online: https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu /uclf/vol1999/iss1/3/.

Brockington, Leonard H. “I and II Samuel.” Pages 318-337 in Peake’s Commentary on the Bible. Edited by Matthew M. Black and Harold H. Rowley. Wokingham: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982.

Bvukutwa, Godess. “Gender Equality is not a Western Notion.” Imagining Equality, https://tinyurl.com/y8vy6frb.

Claassens, Juliana L. “Female Resistance in Spite of Injustice: Human Dignity and the Daughter of Jephthah.” Old Testament Essays 26/3 (2013): 607-22.

Coffman, James B. “Commentary on Judges 19:4.” In Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament. Abilene: Abilene Christian University Press, 1983-1999. Online: https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/judges-19.html.

Collins, Shiella. “Towards a Feminist Theology.” Christian Century 89 (1972): 792-804.

Delano, Lola. “Sexual Abuse and Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Advocates for Youth, https://tinyurl.com/q5her32.

Folayan, Morenike O., MorolakeOdetoyinbo, Abigail Harrison, and Brandon Brown. “Rape in Nigeria: A Silent Epidemic among Adolescents with Implications for HIV Infection.” Global Health Action 7 (2014), https://doi.org/10.3402/gha .v7.25583.

Fox, Vivian C. “Historical Perspectives on Violence against Women.” JIWS 4/1 (2002):15-34. Online: http://vc.bridgew.edu/jiws/vol4/iss1/2/.

Gelles, Richard J. “Domestic Violence.” Microsoft Encarta 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.

Gluck, Samantha. “Causes of Domestic Violence, Domestic Abuse.” Healthy Place, https://tinyurl.com/yagkd4fl.

Goldsmith, Toby D. “Causes of Domestic Abuse.” Psych Central (2016): Online: https://tinyurl.com/y9r8all3.

Graetz, Naomi. “Domestic Violence in Jewish Law.” My Jewish Learning, https://tinyurl.com/ycw9bnue.

Graybill, Rhiannon. “Teaching about Sexual Violence in the Hebrew Bible.” Oxford Biblical Studies Online, https://tinyurl.com/yd9s887q.

Guarneri, Christine and Dudley L. Poston Jr. “Patriarchy.” IESS. https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and-law/anthropology-and-archaeology/anthropology-terms-and-concepts/patriarchy.

Harris, R. Laird, Gleason L. Archer, Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, eds. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Chicago: Moody Publisher, 1980.

Hasstedt, Kinsey and Andrea Rowan. “Understanding Intimate Partner Violence as a Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Issue in the United States.” Guttmacher Policy Review 19 (2016): 37-45. Online: https://tinyurl.com/ybup2fpn.

Igbelina-Igbokwe, Nkiru. “Contextualizing Gender Based Violence within Patriarchy in Nigeria.” Pambzuka News: Voices for Freedom and Justice (2013): 12 pages. Online: https://www.pambazuka.org/gender-minorities/contextualizing-gender-based-violence-within-patriarchy-nigeria.

Jacobs, Sandra. “Terms of Endearment? The Desirable Female Captive and her Illicit Acquisition.” Pages 237-57 in Exodus and Deuteronomy. Edited by Athalya Brenner and Gale A. Yee. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2012. https://doi.org/10.2307 /j.ctt22nm70p.22

Kalichman, Seth C., Leickness C. Simbayi, Michelle Kaufman, Demetria Cain, Chauncey Cherry, and Sean Jooste. “Gender Attitudes, Sexual Violence, and HIV/AIDS Risks among Men and Women in Cape Town, South Africa.” Journal of Sex Research 42/4 (2005): 299-305. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490509 552285.

Kealotswe, Obed N. “Biblical and African Forms of Marriage and Old Testament Prophecy: An Interpretation of Isaiah 4:1 in the Era of HIV/AIDS by an African Independent Church Leader in Botswana.” Theologia Viatorum 33/3 (2009): 296-321.

Kirk-Duggan, Cheryl A. “Precious Memories: Rule of Law in Deuteronomy as Catalyst for Domestic Violence.” Pages 258-88 in Exodus and Deuteronomy. Edited by Athalya Brenner and Gale A. Yee. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2012. https://doi.org/ 10.2307/j.ctt22nm70p.23

Klopper, Frances. “Rape and the Case of Dinah: Ethical Responsibilities for Reading Genesis 34.” Old Testament Essays 23/3 (2010): 652-65.

Masenya, Madipoane J. “Drippling Nails, Desire and Polygynous Partnerships: Navigating Women’s Stories in Gen 29-30 through African Love Song(s).” Theologia Viatorum 36/1 (2012): 125-40.

Merten, Marianne. “Statistics SA: One in Five SA Women Experience Physical Violence, Young Women Hard-Hit by HIV/Aids.” Daily Maverick 15 May 2017, https://tinyurl.com/yavuwbju.

Mkhize, Zweli. “Patriarchy: A Catalyst for Gender Violence and Discrimination.” Daily Maverick 18 September 2017, https://tinyurl.com/yc2srjya.

Mokgata, Kholofelo. “African Culture Should Adopt Feminism: A Look at how Patriarchy has Tarnished African Culture.” Unlabelled, https://tinyurl.com/ya5o5fog.

Newman, Sandra. “Why Men Rape.” Aeon 30 March 2017, https://tinyurl.com/ y8zl2wlt.

Okenwa, Leah, Stephen Lawoko, and Bjarne Jansson. “Factors Associated with Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence among Women in Lagos, Nigeria.” Journal of Injury and Violence Research 1/1(2009):37-47. https://doi.org/10. 5249/jivr.v1i1.15.

Olajubu, Oyeronke. “Culture as an Empowering Tool in Africa: A Feminist Perspective.” Pages 60-69 in Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives in Nigerian Studies. Edited by Rotimi Ajayi, Olu Alana, and Yemi Akinwumi. Ilorin: Nathadex, 1998.

Ose, N. Aihie. “Prevalence of Domestic Violence in Nigeria: Implications for Counseling.” Edo Journal of Counselling 2/1 (2009). 8 pages. https://doi.org/ 10.4314/ejc.v2i1.52648

Robinson, B. A. “Passages in the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) that Treat Women as Inferior to Men.” Religious Tolerance, https://tinyurl.com/b7dv9.

Sarkar, Jaydip. “Mental Health Assessment of Rape Offenders.” Indian Journal of Psychiatry 55/3 (2013): 235-243. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.117137.

Schultz, John. “Genesis 19 – Commentary.” Online: https://tinyurl.com/ycopw77o.

Smith, Charles W. “Commentary on 2 Samuel 16:4.” Chuck Smith Bible Commentary (2014). Online: https://tinyurl.com/y9ctcja8.

Wenham, Gordon J. “Genesis.” Pages 54-91 in New Bible Commentary. Edited by Donald. A. Carson, Gordon J. Wenham, J. Alec Motyer, and Richard T. France. Nottingham: IVP, 1994.

Published
2018-10-29