Poverty in Proverbs, Sirach, and 4QInstruction: Wisdom in Transit
The books of Proverbs, Sirach and 4QInstruction have a family resemblance. These books show some mutual tendencies, shared elements and a similar mode of literature. They are also part of a dynamic process. The activity of people expressing themselves mainly in terms of what can be called wisdom language, was in flux, dynamically moving from one era to a next, from one scenario to another.
This paper studies the idea of poverty in the books of Proverbs, Ben Sira and 4QInstruction in the context of evolving trends in sapiential literature during the time of the Second Temple (516 BCE-70 CE). The theme of “riches and poverty” is one of the most important issues in these books.
• Adams, Samuel L., Wisdom in Transition. Act and Consequence in Second Temple Instructions, Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism, Leiden:Brill, 2008.
• Adams, Samuel L., “Rethinking the Relationship between ’4QInstruction’ and ‘Ben Sira’, Revue de Qumran 24/4 (2010), 555-583.
• Adams, Samuel L. “Poverty and Otherness in Second Temple Instructions.” Location 2449- 2598, in The “Other” in Second Temple Judaism. Essays in Honor of John J. Collins. Edited Harlow, Daniel C., Hogan, Karina Martin, Goff, Matthew & Kaminsky, Joel S. William B Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI.: Kindle Edition, 2011.
• Asensio, Victor Moria. “Poverty and Wealth: Ben Sira’s View of Possessions”. Third World, DOI 10.1515/9783110810912.151, 151-178. 03rd November 2016. http://thirdworld.nl/poverty-and-wealth-ben-sira-s-view-of-possessions.
• Botha, P.J. “The ideology of shame in the Wisdom of Ben Sira: Ecclesiasticus 41:14-42:8”. Old Testament Essays 9/3 (1996), 353-371.
• Burns, Joshua Ezra. “Practical Wisdom in 4QInstruction”. Pages 12-42. Dead Sea Discoveries, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2004). 03 Jun 2015. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4193305 (220.127.116.11).
• Buttigieg, Charles. “The Book of Ben Sira:Connecting the Jews all over the Greek World”. Pages 2-21. Scripture Bulletin, XLIV (2014).
• Clifford, Richard J. Sub Verbo “Proverbs, Book of”. Pages 655-660. The New Interpreter”s Dictionary of the Bible. Me-R. Volume 4. Nashville: Abingdon Press (2009).
• Collins, John J. Jewish wisdom in the Hellenistic Age. Louisville: Westminster John Knox (1997).
• Collins, John J. “Wisdom reconsidered, in light of the Scrolls”. Pages 265–281. Dead Sea Discoveries 4(3) (1997). http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156851797X00137.
• Corley, Jeremy. “An Intertextual Study of Proverbs and Ben Sira”. Pages 155- 182. Intertextual Studies in Ben Sira and Tobit. Esssays in Honor of Alexander A. Di Lella, O.F.M. Edited by Corley, Jeremy and Skemp, Vincent. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 38 (2005). Washington : The Catholic Biblical Association of America.
• Elgvin, Torleif. An Analysis of 4QInstruction. Thesis submitted for the degree “Doctor of Philosophy” (1997). Jerusalem:Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
• Fox, Michael V. “The Social Location of the Book of Proverbs”. Pages 227-239. Texts, Temples, and Traditions. A Tribute to Menahem Haran. Winona Lake, IN:Eisenbrauns (1996).
• Freyne, Sean. “Apocalypticism as the Rejected Other: Wisdom and Apocalypticism in Early Judaism and Early Christianity”/ Pages 247-261. The“Other” in Second Temple Judaism: Essays in Honor of John J. Collins. Edited by Harlow, Daniel C., Goff, Matthew, Hogan, Karina M. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (2011).
• Goff, Matthew J. Wisdom, Apocalypticism, and the Pedagogical Ethos of 4QInstruction. Goff/Toronto SBL/11/11/2002/1 (2002). 20 October 2016. https://www.sbl-site.org/assets/pdfs/Goff.pdf.
• Goff, Matthew J. Discerning wisdom: The sapiential literature of the Dead Sea scrolls. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 116. Leiden:Koninklijke Brill (2007).
• Goff, Matthew J. 4QInstruction. “Wisdom Literature from the Ancient World”. Atlanta:Society of Biblical Literature (2013).
• Hoppe, Leslie J. There shall be no poor among you. Poverty in the Bible. Nashville, TN.:Abingdon (2004).
• Kampen, John. Wisdom literature. Grand Rapids:Eerdmans (Kindle edition) (2011).
• Knibb, M.A. “The book of Enoch in the light of the Qumran wisdom literature”. Pages 193–210. Wisdom and apocalypticism in the Dead Sea scrolls and in biblical tradition. Edited by García Martínez, F. Leuven:Leuven University Press (2003).
• Koch, Klaus. “Gibt es ein Vergeltungsdogma im Alten Testament?”. Pages 1-42. Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche 52.1 (1951).
• Kynes, Will. “The modern scholarly wisdom tradition and the threat of pan-sapientialism: a case report”. Pages 11-38. Was there a Wisdom Tradition? New Prospects in Israelite Wisdom Studies. Atlanta:SBL Press (2015).
• Loader, James Alfred. “Metaphorical and literal readings of aphorisms in the Book of Proverbs”. Pages 1177-1199., Hervormde Teologiese Studies 62(4) (2015).
• Lookadoo, J. “Sirach, Book of, Critical Issues”. No page numbers. The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Edited by Barry, In J. D., Bomar, D, Brown, D.R., Klippenstein, R, Mangum,D., Sinclair Wolcott, C and Widder, W. Bellingham,WA: Lexham Press, (logos edition), (2016).
• Matthews, Mark D. Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: perspectives on wealth in the Second Temple period and the Apocalypse of John. Thesis Doctor of Philosophy, Faculty of the Department of Theology and Religion, Durham University (2010).
• NRSV. The Holy Bible: New Revised Standard Version. Nashville:Thomas Nelson Publishers (1989).
• Perdue, Leo G. Wisdom Literature. A Theological History. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster Kohn Knox Press (2007).
• Perdue, Leo G. The Sword and the Stylus. An Introduction to Wisdom in the Age of Empires. Grand Rapids, MI.:William B. Eerdmans (2008).
• Pilch, J.J. “The wisdom of Ben Sira in MENA Cultural Context: a Cultural Topical Index”, HTS Teologiese Studies/ Theological Studies 72(4), a3212. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3212 (2016).
• Pleins, J. David. “Poverty in the Social World of the Wise”. Pages 61-78. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 37 (1987).
• Premstaller, Volkmar. ” ’Nimm dich des Bedürftigen an!’ (Sir 29,9); Weisheitliche Lehren zur Armut”. Pages 480-493. Zeitschrift für Katholische Theologie 129/ 3&4 (2007).
• Rey, Jean-Sébastien. 4QInstruction: sagesse et eschatology. Series Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 81. Leiden:Brill (2009).
• Sandoval, Timothy. The Discourse of Wealth and Poverty in the Book of Proverbs. Leiden-Boston: Brill (2006).
• Schellenberg, Annette. “Don’t throw the baby out with the bathwater: on the distinctiveness of the sapiential understanding of the world”. Pages 115-143. Was there a Wisdom Tradition? New Prospects in Israelite Wisdom Studies. Atlanta:SBL Press (2015).
• Skehan, P.W. & Di Lella, A.A. The wisdom of Ben Sira. Anchor Bible 39. New York:Doubleday (1987).
• Sneed, Mark R. (editor). Was there a Wisdom Tradition? New Prospects in Israelite Wisdom Studies. Atlanta:SBL Press (2015).
• Sneed, Mark R. “Introduction”. Pages 1-10. Was there a Wisdom Tradition? New Prospects in Israelite Wisdom Studies. Atlanta:SBL Press (2015).
• Sneed, Mark R. “ ‘Grasping after the wind’: The elusive attempt to define and delimit wisdom”. Pages 39-67. Was there a Wisdom Tradition? New Prospects in Israelite Wisdom Studies. Atlanta:SBL Press (2015).
• Spangenberg, Izak. “ ‘The poor will always be with you’. Wealth and poverty in a wisdom perspective”. Pages 228–246. Plutocrats and paupers: wealth and poverty in the Old Testament. Edited by Bosman, H. L.; Gous, I .G .P . & Spangenberg, I. J. J. Pretoria: JL van Schaik (1991).
• Tigchelaar, Eibert. 4QInstruction. 06th July 2015. http://www.academia.edu/499836/4QInstruction/ read.
• Tigchelaar, Eibert. “Your wisdom and your folly: The case of 1-4QMysteries”. Pages 69–88. Wisdom and apocalyti cism in the Dead Sea scrolls and in biblical tradition. Leuven:Leuven University Press (2003).
• Wright III, Benjamin G & Camp, Claudia V. “ ‘Who has been tested by gold and found perfect’ Ben Sira’s discourse of riches and poverty”. Pages 153-174. Henoch, XXIII, 2-3 (2001).
• Wright, Benjamin G., III, “The Categories of Rich and Poor in the Qumran Sapiential Literature”. Pages 101-113. Sapiential Perspective: Wisdom Literature in the Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium of the Orion Center, 20-22 May 2001. Edited by Collins, John J., Sterling, Gregory E. and Clements, Ruth. Leiden:Brill (2004).
• Wright, B.G., III. “The categories of rich and poor in the Qumran sapiential literature”. Pages 49-70. Praise Israel for Wisdom and Instruction. Essays on Ben Sira and Wisdom, the Letters of Aristeas and the Septuagint. Edited by Wright, B.G., III. Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism. Leiden:Brill. 06th October 2016. http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il/symposiums/6th/wrightFullPaper.htm.
• Wright, Benjamin G. , III. “The Use and Interpretations of Biblical Tradition in Ben Sira’s Praise of the Ancestors”. Pages 183- 207. Studies in the book of Ben Sira. Papers of the Third International Congress on the Deuterocanonical Book, Shome’on Centre, Papa, Hungary, 18-22 May, 2006. Edited by Xeravits, Geza G. and Zsengeller, Joszef. Leiden:Brill (2008).
• Wright, Benjamin G., III. “Biblical Interpretation in the Book of Ben Sira”. Pages 363-388. A Companion to Biblical Interpretation in Early Judaism. Grand Rapids MI.: William B Eerdmans (2012).
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).