• Annette Evans University of the Free State
Keywords: Angels, Ezekiel, Qumran, Jewish angelology


Earlier research has demonstrated that certain ambiguous angelological phrases which hint at divinatory associations present in MT Ezekiel 1 and 10 (the so-called ‘Merkebah Chapters) have been suppressed in the LXX version. As a translation, the LXX reflects the religious needs and exegetical perceptions of the Alexandrian Jews in the third and second centuries BCE. This paper compares these key angelological verses in Ezekiel 1 and 10 with linguistically or semantically similar words or phrases in 4Q385 Pseudo-Ezekiel. The result of the comparison indicates that these tell-tale verses are contradicted in Pseudo-Ezekiel 4Q385 Frg. 6. The Dead Sea Scrolls share aspects and problems of beliefs in angels with the Judaism of their period, but the texts found at Qumran increase the difficulty of defining Jewish angelology, partly because of lack of knowledge concerning their provenance, and partly because the different works show quite disparate beliefs and motives concerning angels. The conclusion of this paper is that Pseudo-Ezekiel was written by a conservative author who did not want to reveal the divinatory aspects of the angelological content.


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